1) Survivor Voices are Valued and Centered
Intimate partner violence causes harm to survivors in many ways: physically, sexually, mentally, emotionally, and economically. Survivors should define safety and healing from IPV. APIPs should collaborate with community-based advocates and survivors to understand and address identified needs. Systems of oppression that perpetuate discrimination and create barriers for marginalized survivors must be consistently and intentionally addressed to be genuinely survivor-centered.
- Safety and Services: Women of Color Speak About their Communities (Boggess and Groblewski, 2011)
- Victim Contact in Abusive Partner Intervention: The Importance of Collaboration (Center for Court Innovation, 2020)
- Why Women First (Carlin, Men Stopping Violence, 1982)
- Safety Planning Based on Lethality Assessment for Partners of Batterers in Intervention Programs (Campbell, 2008)
- Batterer’s Intervention: What Every Victim Advocate Needs to Know (Zegree, 2008)
- Webinar: Batterer Intervention Programs and Victim Safety (OVC TTAC, 2018)
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2) Accountability is Active and Relational
Individuals, communities, and systems all create the environment where IPV occurs and the spaces where those harms can be addressed. People who cause harm are fully responsible for their behaviors and can choose to be accountable and change. Personal change requires an understanding of the root causes of thoughts, beliefs, feelings, and behaviors that harm self and others. Interpersonal, communal, and systemic accountability and support can increase the likelihood of a person’s choice to heal and change. System and community-based agencies should identify the harms they have created through oppressive practices and policies and remedy these barriers to safety, accountability, and healing for people who cause harm, survivors, and their children.
- Relational and Systemic Accountability for Persons Who Use Violence (Futures Without Violence, 2019)
- Domestic Violence Compliance Court Recommended Sanctions for Infractions (Kansas City Municipal Court)
- Domestic Violence Drug Court Recommended Sanctions for Infractions (Kansas City Municipal Court)
- Clay County Domestic Violence Court Sanctioning Matrix (Moorehead, MN)
- [Podcast] Building Pathways to Accountability in Abusive Partner Interventions (Center for Court Innovation, 2020)
Compliance Monitoring in Domestic Violence Cases: A Guide for Courts (Center for Court Innovation, 2020)
3) Hope and Dignity are Restored
Intervention and engagement strategies should create spaces for transformation, healing, safety, and well-being for people who cause harm. APIPs should collaborate with other community-based agencies to do the same with adult and child survivors. Programs should treat participants with dignity and respect, valuing their commitment to change and transformation. They should provide skill-building and access to wraparound support to address the harm and violence, and help participants develop goals for healthy, non-abusive relationships. Intervention and engagement strategies should recognize participant experiences while including support to heal past trauma and the harms caused by systems of oppression.
- A National Portrait of Restorative Approaches to Intimate Partner Violence (Center for Court Innovation, North Carolina State University, University of Vermont, 2019)
- Analysis: It’s Time to Rethink Our Response to Intimate Partner Violence (Tongue, 2022)
- Concept Mapping: Engaging Urban Men to Understand Community Influences on Partner Violence Perpetration (Holliday et al., 2019)
- Defining Justice: Restorative and Retributive Justice Goals Among Intimate Partner Violence Survivors (Decker et al., 2020)
- Restorative Justice and Intimate Partner Violence - Podcast, (Center for Court Innovation, 2021)
- The Science of Hope - Podcast, (Center for Court Innovation, 2021)
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4) Culture and Community are Reflected and Valued
Intervention and engagement strategies need to meet the needs of the diverse populations within their communities and center culture as a critical component of meaningful intervention. Addressing the harms of IPV requires genuine collaboration between system and community-based actors to develop strategies resulting in safer and healthier intimate partner, family, peer, and community relationships. To do so, these intervention and engagement strategies should center on the communities they serve and engage their members as experts, develop collaborative wraparound supports, reflect the diversity and intersectionality of participants, practice cultural reverence and humility, and when possible, develop community accountability processes outside formal systems.
- Deconstructing Male Violence Against Women – The Men Stopping Violence Community Accountability Model
- “Returning Men to Honor” Guidebook for Developing Men’s Programs (Nevilles-Sorell, Oden, & Olson, 2009)
- Breaking the Cycle: A Life Course Framework for Preventing Domestic Violence (Blue Shield of California Foundation, 2019)
- Between Compassion and Accountability: Guidelines for Faith Leaders Responding to People Who Abuse Intimate Partners (Safe Havens Interfaith Partnership Against Domestic Violence and Elder Abuse and Emerge Counseling and Education to Stop Domestic Violence, 2020)
- African American Men Who Batter: A Community-Centered Approach to Prevention and Intervention (Douglas, Nuriddin, & Perry, Men Stopping Violence, 2008)
- Culturally Specific Treatment for Partner-Abusive Latino Men: A Qualitative Study to Identify and Implement Program Components (Welland & Ribner, 2010)
- Invisible Pain and Overlooked Violence: Abusive Partner Interventions in the LGBTQIA+ Community (Publication, Center for Court Innovation, 2022)
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5) Interventions and Engagement Strategies Respond to the Needs And Strengths of Abusive Partners
Since people who cause harm through IPV have different needs, strengths, personal goals, and motivations for using abuse, communities should develop multiple pathways to accountability. Practitioners must acknowledge the nuances and complexities of humanity, understanding that many people who cause harm have been impacted by systems of oppression, may have experienced trauma in their own lives, and have varying levels of risks and access to basic needs. Engagement and intervention strategies should be trauma-informed and person-centered, moving away from one-size-fits-all approaches, addressing the unique needs of participants, and leveraging participants’ inherent strengths and goals to effect positive behavior change.
- [Webinar] Women Who Use Force (Center for Court Innovation, 2021)
- Podcast: Wraparound Services to Support Safety and Change (Center for Court Innovation, 2021)
- Webinar: Comprehensive Assessment in Abusive Partner Intervention Work (Center for Court Innovation, 2020)
- The Criminogenic and Noncriminogenic Treatment Needs of Intimate Partner Violence Offenders (Hilton & Radatz, 2018)
- Specific Offender Population Best Practice Guidelines (Standards For Treatment With Court Ordered Domestic Violence Offenders: Appendix B, Colorado Domestic Violence Offender Management Board, 2016)
- Domestic Violence Perpetrators: Identifying Needs to Inform Early Intervention (Hester et. al., 2006)
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6) Racial Justice is Centered
A deep analysis of intersectionality and systems of oppression—particularly racism—is needed to create truly holistic interventions. Survivors and people who cause harm are deeply affected not only by sexism but other types of oppression, including structural and systemic racism. In close collaboration with the community, programs should address the impact of all oppressive systems and not only focus on individual change. They should also embark on self-reflection about how their policies, practices, and alliances may contribute to racial and other types of social injustices and make appropriate corrections.
- Transformational Collaborations: Considerations to Apply a Racial Equity Lens (Starr, 2020)
- Truth, healing, and transformation: Addressing structural racism and building multiracial solidarity (ValorUS, 2021)
- Racialized Trauma Course (Cultural Semantics Training and Institute)
- The Inner Work of Racial Justice (Rhonda V. Maggee, 2021)
- The Racially Responsive Facilitator (Rice-Boothe, 2019)
- Critical Race Theory, Parenting, and Intimate Partner Violence: Analyzing Race and Gender (Cannon et al., 2020)
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7) Self-Reflection is Prioritized
Facilitating a healing, growth, and accountability process for others is only possible as an extension of the facilitators’ exploration of those factors in their own lives. Everyone is impacted by systems of oppression—white supremacy, heteropatriarchy, settler colonialism, ableism, and classism—as well as their own personal experiences of trauma, and everyone can cause harm. Facilitators, agency leadership, and system stakeholders must engage in ongoing self-reflection to understand and acknowledge their privilege and power, actively work to dismantle systems of oppression, and take accountability for harm caused in their own lives and within their fields of practice.
- Self-Inquiry for Social Change Leaders (Milligan & Walker, 2020)
- Engaging In Self-Reflection And Growth For Equity (Lead Tool)
- The Role of Self-Awareness and Reflection in Social Care Practice (Greene, 2017)
- Awareness of Self—A Critical Tool (Urdang, 2010)
- Inner Work for Social Change
- Self-Reflection Support (Inspire Action for Social Change)
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- How Trauma, Depression, and Gender Roles Lead to Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration Among a Sample of Predominantly Low-Income Black, Indigenous, Men of Color: A Mixed Methods Study (Voith, Lee, & Russell, 2020)
- Adverse Childhood Experiences, Trauma Symptoms, Mindfulness, and Intimate Partner Violence: Therapeutic Implications for Marginalized Men (Voith, Russell, Lee, & Anderson, 2020)
- Addressing Trauma Through Abusive Partner Intervention Programs (Center for Court Innovation and Futures Without Violence, featuring Terri Strodthoff and Steve Halley, 2020)
- Trauma-Informed Care for Children Exposed to Violence: Tips for Engaging Men and Fathers (Safe Start Center, OJJDP)
- "I Don’t Even Deserve a Chance": An Ethnographic Study of Adverse Childhood Experiences Among Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence (Hoskins and Kunkel, 2020)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 License.
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Women Who Use Force
- Webinar - Women Who Use Force (Center for Court Innovation, April 2021)
- Safe at Home: Women Who Use Force (Michigan Radio Newsroom, 2011)
Working with Young People Who Cause Harm
- Arrest Histories of Adolescent Male Domestic Violence Offenders in New York City (Peterson, 2011)
- “Domestic Violence Among Young Male Offenders.” (Peterson, 2010)
- Youth Dating Violence: Can a Court Help Break the Cycle? (Center for Court Innovation, 2004)
- Guidelines for Young Adult Offenders (Standards For Treatment With Court Ordered Domestic Violence Offenders: Appendix K, Colorado Domestic Violence Offender Management Board, 2017)
- How do you want your kids to remember you? A workbook for fathers who have harmed their partners and families and want to change (Futures Without Violence, 2022)
- Parenting Interventions for Men Who Batter (Scott and Mederos, 2012)
- [International] Discussions of Fatherhood in Male Batterer Treatment Group (Veteläinen, Grönholm, and Holma, 2013)
- Fathering After Violence: Guidelines and Tools for Batterer Intervention Programs (Futures Without Violence)
- Video: Something My Father Would Do (Futures Without Violence, 2019)
- [International] Are Men Who Use Violence Against their Partners and Children Good Enough Fathers? The Need for an Integrated Child Perspective in the Treatment Work with the Men (Råkil, 2006)
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